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JavaScript literals

Category javascript
Chris Toohey and I had a lively conversation on the twitters regarding the use of object and array constructors in JavaScript versus the corresponding literal syntax for each. The ever-wise Paul Withers suggested this might be a good topic for a blog post, so here we are.

What's an Array Literal?

This:

[ ]

That's it. That's the simplest (and, many would say, "correct") way to create an array in JavaScript. For a more thorough example, suppose you wanted to define a variable as an array that initially contains two string values. Your code might then look something like this:

var greetingPieces = [ "Hello", "World" ];

What's a Constructed Array?

A syntax that likely looks more familiar than the above literal syntax to developers of other languages (with the possible exception of Python) is the use of the array constructor; for example:

var greetingPieces = new Array("Hello", "World");

This syntax is still frequently used as one of many holdovers from a time when the literal syntax wasn't available (circa Netscape 2). The above code will (almost always) result in an array object with essentially the same characteristics as the previous example using the literal syntax.

So... What's the Difference?

I alluded in my twitterings to side effects associated with the use of JavaScript constructors. Let's look first at a very pragmatic example, then shift later into some of the more philosophical implications.

var literalArray = [3];
var constructedArray = new Array(3);

Based on a previous statement, when the above code executes, I should have two objects with essentially the same characteristics, yes?

In truth, here is what I now have:

[3] // literalArray
[undefined, undefined, undefined] // constructedArray

Is the latter what I intended? More importantly, how would you know? Chris made the excellent point that readability is a good goal for any code. In real code, the variable would not be (or, at least, should not be constructedArray, so it's possible that the name of the variable might lead you to assume that I want to initially have an array with three empty slots instead of a single-value array storing only the literal numeric value of 3. But with the literal syntax, it's obvious what you're getting, because it simply stores the value you assign to the variable, instead of constructing an object based on rules that are unique to the construction of Array instances. If you always use the literal syntax, what you see is always what you get. If you use the constructor, you have to remember that it behaves differently based on what arguments you pass it. Those are wasted neurons.

Now let's dive into slightly more philosophical territory.

JavaScript is a prototypal language; arguably, the only prototypal language in common use today (feel free to split hairs and consider ActionScript as an additional commonly-used prototypal language, but it's essentially just JavaScript executed within the context of a specific product, in much the same way that Server-Side JavaScript in XPages is not really JavaScript, but in terms of its syntax and uses, it's close enough). As such, it doesn't create, and maintain, objects the same way that nearly every other language now does. One implication of this is that there are serious potential problems with any use of the new keyword.

A thorough explanation of this would make for a fairly lengthy read, and I don't fully trust my capacity to adequately explain it. Instead, read this blog entry that Douglas Crockford posted 7 years ago. It sums up fairly nicely some of the key reasons why new is often a bad idea in JavaScript; in other languages, new is useful and necessary and good. JavaScript is not other languages. I have hinted elsewhere that JavaScript is a great language that teaches bad habits. This is probably not entirely true. Perhaps a more rational statement is this: portions of good JavaScript code look wildly different from good equivalent code in almost any other language, and trying to use similar patterns across contexts -- instead of embracing best methods unique to each -- can negatively impact the readability, reusability, and stability of all of your code.

Real Developers

During our conversation, I used a phrase with which Chris rightly took issue: "real developers". In the context of a medium that limits each statement to 140 characters, it's natural to interpret this phrase as mockery of those whose development practices currently differ from mine. Now that I'm in a context that instead limits each statement to 64KB, I can offer a lengthy explanation of my personal definition of this phrase.

Most Domino developers I know used to be something else. I started my career as a Domino admin. One day I wrote a couple lines of code. At some point later on, I wrote a few more lines of code. Eventually I was writing enough code that I considered myself slightly more of a developer than an admin. Today I can still keep my blog server up and make basic server configuration recommendations to my customers, but that element of my skillset has stagnated enough that I leave anything complex to the "real admins".

Similarly, once I ceased to primarily consider myself an admin, I was a "Notes developer". At some point I had designed enough web interfaces that I considered myself a "Domino developer". A few years ago I considered myself an "XPage developer". Now I'm a "Java developer". Most of my code is still written in the context of XPage applications, but I think of myself as a Java developer.

This is not Pinocchio. You won't wake up one morning to discover you've transformed from wood to flesh and bone. But I'm reminded of the brief times I've spent in the UK. It's easy to think I know the language, because it's all just English, right? Not so. There are words that are culturally innocuous when spoken in London that are culturally offensive when spoken in Atlanta. I could move to London, but I wouldn't be a "real Brit" until I've embraced enough of the culture that everything about the way that I speak, live, and think is more consistent with those around me than my current cultural identity.

A real developer, therefore, is someone who embraces more of the culture of the language (or platform) in which they're coding at any given moment than any alternative -- including the culture of an alternative language. If you're developing an XPage application and trying to force it to still be a LotusScript-driven app, you're not allowing yourself to be a real XPage developer. If you're developing JavaScript and trying to force it to feel like Java, you're not really developing JavaScript.

It's a continuum. No matter how confident I am in my own skills on any given day, I still frequently flip booleans and commit off-by-one errors. But, as developers, we should strive to be as real as possible. This is best achieved by immersing ourselves in the culture of what we're doing as deeply as is feasible under whatever personal and professional constraints are in place. Learn the language -- not just from a textbook, but from others who "speak" it. Emulate their behavior, their "lifestyle", their philosophy. When doing what they do has become more instinctive than what you used to do, you're a real developer.

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